The two-man turret was "cramped and inefficient"[75] and was inferior to the three-man (commander, gunner, and loader) turret crews of German Panzer III and Panzer IV tanks. The remaining tank continued to engage the withdrawing South African paratroops from a hull down position until the battle was over. [122] The WWII-era 2.36-inch bazookas initially used by the American troops in Korea were useless against the KPA's T-34 tanks,[123] as were the 75 mm main guns of the M24 Chaffee light tank. [68][69] This meant that they could only be penetrated from the sides at ranges of a few hundred meters. Many are in private ownership, and demilitarised working tanks change hands for U.S. $20,000–40,000. [11] Replacing many light and medium tanks in Red Army service, it was the most-produced tank of the war, as well as the second most-produced tank of all time (after its successor, the T-54/T-55 series). No bureaucrat would approve production of the new gun, but Gorky and KhPZ started producing it anyway; official permission came from the State Defense Committee only after troops praised the weapon's performance in combat against the Germans. Similarly, casting was seen as high quality although casting defects were found in the side armour of the tank that negatively affected armour strength. It was evolved from the T29 Heavy Tank and T30 Heavy Tank in 1945, sporting a 120 mm (4.72 in) modified anti-aircraft gun. [135][136] A number of T-34s being stored by the VRS at a base in Zvornik were temporarily confiscated by UNPROFOR as part of a local disarmament programme the following year.[134]. ", "Original Report: Отчет ЦНИИ-48 "Изучение пробивного действия немецких трофейных снарядов по броне наших танков и разработка мер борьбы с ними,,,,,, "ENGINEERING ANALYSIS OF THE RUSSIAN T34/85 TANK". Both were Soviet developments of foreign designs from the early 1930s; the T-26 was based on the British Vickers 6-Ton, and the BT tanks were based on a design from American engineer J. Walter Christie. [28], Production of this first T-34 series – the Model 1940 – totalled only about 400,[31] before production was switched to the Model 1941, with the F-34 gun, 9-RS radio set (also installed on the SU-100), and even thicker armour. [124] However, following the introduction of heavier and more capable armour into the war by US and UN forces, such as the American M4 Sherman, M26 Pershing and M46 Patton tanks, as well as the British Comet and Centurion tanks, the KPA began to suffer more T-34 tank losses in combat from enemy armour, aside from further losses due to numerous US/UN airstrikes and increasingly-effective anti-tank firepower for US/UN infantry on the ground, such as the then-new 3.5-inch M20 "Super Bazooka" (replacing the earlier 2.36-inch model). During the Battle of Lake Khasan in July 1938 and the Battles of Khalkhin Gol in 1939, an undeclared border war with Japan on the frontier with occupied Manchuria, the Soviets deployed numerous tanks against the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). Turret castings, superficial details, and equipment differed between factories; new features were added in the middle of production runs, or retrofitted to older tanks; damaged tanks were rebuilt, sometimes with the addition of newer-model equipment and even new turrets. Bodnar, who was in combat in 1941–42, recalled: From the point of view of operating them, the German armoured machines were almost perfect, they broke down less often. At the start of hostilities, the Red Army had 967 T-34 tanks and 508 KV tanks[89] concentrated in five[90] of their twenty-nine mechanized corps. [83] The earlier transmissions were troublesome, and some tanks went into battle with a spare transmission cabled onto the engine compartment deck.[84]. For those that believe that this is the Soviet T-34 (notice the dash in the name) "The final variation of the T29 concept, the Heavy Tank T34, mounted a 120 mm gun based upon the then-current 120mm M1 anti-aircraft gun" -Wikipedia The name of the T-34's engine (V-2; B-2 in Russian) is a model name, and has nothing to do with its number of cylinders. Examples of this tank are in the collections of most significant military museums, and hundreds more serve as war memorials. The quality of materials used were "ample for the job" with some being "better than those used in American tanks". The Panzer IV, its closest German equivalent at that time, used narrower track which tended to sink in such conditions. The T-34-85 was called pitkäputkinen Sotka ("long-barreled Sotka").[179]. [citation needed], The T-34 was powered by a Model V-2-34 38.8 L V12 Diesel engine of 500 hp (370 kW),[notes 2] giving a top speed of 53 km/h (33 mph). 14 "The incredible T-34 tank." [139] In 1975, large quantities of T-34-85s were also donated from the USSR to the FAR to support its lengthy intervention in the Angolan Civil War. Throughout production, improvements were constantly being made. [49] Earlier models of the T-34, until the Model 1942, had cast turrets whose armour was softer than that of the other parts of the tank, and offered poor resistance even to 37 mm anti-aircraft shells. Some Soviet units were equipped with heavy tanks such as the massive, five-turreted T-35, but these were so slow and unreliable that they were virtually useless in combat. [86] A report by the 2nd Guards Tank Army in February 1945 revealed that the average engine service life of a T-34 was lower than the official warranty at 185-190 hours. Nicknamed pirozhok (stuffed bun) because of its characteristic shape, it was heavy and hard to open. The bomber, Josef Kneifel, was sentenced to life imprisonment in Bautzen, but was released after a deal with the West German government in 1987. Flag images indicative of country of origin and not necessarily primary operator. The vehicle was deemed too heavy and no production orders were placed. Milsom, John (1971). The T-34-85 was the first Soviet tank to enter service with the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR), along with the IS-2. The Cuban forces were mobilised to stop them. [127], A platoon of five Cuban T-34-85s saw combat in Angola against South African troops during the Battle of Cassinga. The electrical mechanism for rotating the turret is very bad. Despite these deficiencies, the T-34's armour proved problematic for the Germans in the initial stages of the war on the Eastern Front. Tank commander A.K. There is a broad consensus among historians that the most influential tank in WWII, is not a member of the famed German panzer division nor one of the American tanks that liberated Western Europe, but, instead, it is a Russian tank: the T-34. [125], In summary, a 1954 US military survey concluded that there were, in all, 119 tanks vs. tank actions involving US Army and US Marine units against North Korean and Chinese forces during the Korean War, with 97 T-34-85 tanks knocked out and another 18 considered probable. A few tanks also had appliqué armour of varying thickness welded onto the hull and turret. [30], Comparisons can be drawn between the T-34 and the U.S. M4 Sherman tank. There were nine ready rounds of ammunition stowed in racks on the sides of the fighting compartment. [49], Judging by samples, Russians when producing tanks pay little attention to careful machining or the finishing and technology of small parts and components, which leads to the loss of the advantage what would otherwise accrue from what on the whole are well-designed tanks. Maryevski later remembered: The caterpillars used to break apart even without a bullet or shell hits. Developed in 1945 as a modernization of the T30 heavy tank. However, the T-43 prototype's armour, though heavier, was not capable against German 88 mm guns, while its mobility was found to be inferior to the T-34. Limited rubber supplies led to the adoption of all-steel, internally sprung road wheels, and a new clutch was added to an improved five-speed transmission and engine, improving reliability. The tanks were based along with a company of Cuban mechanized infantry equipped with BTR-152 armoured personnel carriers. [127] In 1975, the Soviet Union shipped eighty T-34-85s to Angola as part of its support for the ongoing Cuban military intervention there. [170][171], Another such tank, mounted atop the monument to Soviet tank crews in Prague, was the focus of significant controversy. By 1937–38, track design had improved and the designers considered it a waste of space, weight, and maintenance resources, despite the road speed advantage. The Finnish tanks were captured directly from the Soviets or purchased from Germany's captured stocks. [17] The A-20 also incorporated previous research (BT-IS and BT-SW-2 projects) into sloped armour: its all-round sloped armour plates were more likely to deflect rounds than perpendicular armour.[18]. The T-34 had a profound effect on the conflict on the Eastern Front in the Second World War, and had a lasting impact on tank design. [174], In Budapest on 23 October 2006, the 2006 protests in Hungary climaxed during the 50th anniversary of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. [citation needed]. [138], Cuba received 150 T-34-85 tanks as military aid from the Soviet Union in 1960. When earth got stuck between the road wheels, the caterpillar, especially during a turn – strained to such an extent that the pins and tracks themselves couldn't hold out.[85]. As a result, they quickly wear and the track often breaks. [107][108] One of the resulting guns used on the original T-34 85 model (the D-5T) was capable of penetrating the Tiger I's upper hull armour at 1,000 metres. [64] However by 1942 the Germans had increased the hull armour on the Panzer IV to 80mm which provided good protection at normal combat distances. As they approached Cassinga they were strafed by South African aircraft, which destroyed most of the BTR-152s and three of the T-34-85s; a fourth T-34-85 was disabled by an anti-tank mine buried in the road. The BT tanks were cavalry tanks: fast-moving and light, designed for maneuver warfare. The rest are in storage awaits and no longer serve as active duty battle tank. One of the T-34’s most important features was its engine. The USSR donated two combat-used Model 1941 T-34s to the United States for testing purposes in late 1942. [118] Production figures for the T-34-85 alone reached 22,559. Also added were an improved engine air filter and a new clutch mated to an improved and more reliable five-speed transmission. T-34-85s equipped many of the armies of Eastern European countries (later forming the Warsaw Pact) and the armies of other Soviet client-states elsewhere. [133][134] Most of these tanks were in poor condition at the beginning of the conflict and some were soon rendered unserviceable, likely through inadequate maintenance and lack of spares. Analysis from the CIA suggested it was due to "inadequate design" due to the fact that the quality of materials used was not poor. [116] By May 1944, T-34-85 production had reached 1,200 tanks per month. Soviet firing tests against a captured Tiger I heavy tank in April 1943 showed that the T-34's 76 mm gun could not penetrate the front of the Tiger I at all, and the side only at the very close range. [36] Stalingrad kept up production until September 1942. [126], One of the last modern conflicts which saw the extensive combat deployment of the T-34-85 was the Angolan Civil War. A Soviet 85 mm anti-aircraft gun, the 52-K, was found capable of doing the job, and so derivatives of it were developed for tanks. [106] Consequently, the T-43 was cancelled. [citation needed]. For the Germans, covering 200 km was nothing, but with T-34s something would have been lost, something would have broken down. "[31] However, a Military Commissariat Report of the 10th Tank Division, dated 2 August 1941 reported that within 300–400 m the 37 mm Pak 36's armour-piercing shot could defeat the frontal armour. [34] The Kirovsky Factory, evacuated just weeks before the Germans surrounded Leningrad, moved with the Kharkov Diesel Factory to the Stalin Tractor Factory in Chelyabinsk, soon to be nicknamed Tankograd ("Tank City"). Guards Tank. Now the tank commander needed only to command (aided by cupola and radio systems), leaving the operation of the gun to the gunner and the loader. The 400 alpha is the most out of all tier 8 heavy tanks and the penetration is a staggering 248mm for … The vehicle was deemed too heavy and no production orders were placed. [117] In the entire war, production figures for all Panther types reached no more than 6,557, and for all Tiger types (including the Tiger I and Tiger II) 2,027. [93] In another incident, a single Soviet T-34 was hit more than 30 times by a battalion-sized contingent of German 37mm and 50mm anti-tank guns, yet survived intact and drove back to its own lines a few hours later. [87], During the Korean war the Americans captured a North Korean T-34 85, evaluating its performance. Some still may serve in a second-line capacity in a number of Third World militaries, while others may find use in a civilian capacity, primarily in film-making. Captured enemy designs, experimental types, and Lend-Lease tanks are also included in … The pins are extremely poorly tempered and made of poor steel. T-34 byl sovětský střední tank vyvinutý na přelomu 30. a 40. let 20. století, který měl zásadní a trvalý dopad na konstrukci tanků. The T26E3 medium tank, weighed around 45 short tons, but was not considered heavily enough armed or armored to counter the Tiger II, which weighed closer to 69 t. The T29 was not ready in time for the war in Europe, but it did provide post … [12] With 44,900 lost during the war, it also suffered the most tank losses ever. [123] After October 1950, KPA armour was rarely encountered. [15], In 1937, the Red Army had assigned engineer Mikhail Koshkin to lead a new team to design a replacement for the BT tanks at the Kharkov Komintern Locomotive Plant (KhPZ). After these battles, Koshkin convinced Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to let him develop a second prototype, a more heavily armed and armoured "universal tank" that reflected the lessons learned and could replace both the T-26 and the BT tanks. To many in Prague, the tank was also a reminder of the Soviet invasion which ended the Prague Spring of 1968. [7][8], "The museum where the Army's tanks never die, they just get repainted (PHOTOS)", American armored fighting vehicle production during World War II, Prototype armoured fighting vehicles of World War II,, Abandoned military projects of the United States, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 6 (driver, gunner, loader, assistant loader, commander, assistant driver), hull front 102–203 mm (4.0–8.0 in) maximum, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 04:18. [24], Valuable lessons from Lake Khasan and Khalkhin Gol regarding armour protection, mobility, quality welding, and main guns were incorporated into the new T-34 tank, which represented a substantial improvement over the BT and T-26 tanks in all four areas. The Christie suspension was inherited from the design of American J. Walter Christie's M1928 tank, versions of which were sold turret-less to the Red Army and documented as "farm tractors", after being rejected by the U.S. Army. Tanks were initially built at KhPZ N.183, in early 1941 at the Stalingrad Tractor Factory (STZ), and starting in July at Krasnoye Sormovo Factory N.112 in Gorky. [49], Testing at Aberdeen also revealed that engines could grind to a halt from dust and sand ingestion, as the original "Pomon" air filter was almost totally ineffective and had an insufficient air-inflow capacity, starving the combustion chambers of oxygen, lowering compression, and thereby restricting the engine from operating at full capacity. [94] Anti-tank gunners began aiming at tank tracks, or vulnerable margins on the turret ring and gun mantlet, rather than the bow and turret armour. [3] Both were tested in field trials at Kubinka in 1939, with the heavier A-32 proving to be as mobile as the A-20. Although the IJA Type 95 Ha-Go light tanks had diesel engines,[19] the Red Army's T-26 and BT tanks used petrol engines which, while common in tank designs of the time, often burst into flames when hit by IJA tank-killer teams[20] using Molotov cocktails. The motor is weak, very overloaded and sparks horribly, as a result of which the device regulating the speed of the rotation burns out, and the teeth of the cogwheels break into pieces. [12], The T-34 had well-sloped armour, a relatively powerful engine and wide tracks. The Soviet high command's decision to focus on one cost-effective design, cutting costs and simplifying production wherever possible while only allowing relatively minor improvements, had proven to be an astute choice for the first two years of the war. Typical crews went into combat with only basic military training plus 72 hours of classroom instruction; according to historian Steven Zaloga: The weakness of mechanized corps lay not in the design of their equipment, but rather in its poor mechanical state, the inadequate training of their crews, and the abysmal quality of Soviet military leadership in the first month of the war. [77] Soviet veterans condemned the turret hatches of the early models. Extra armor plating was applied to the rear of the turret bustle as a counterweight for the heavier 120mm T53 main gun. It had heavier armour than any medium tank produced to date, and there were problems with defective armour plates. [121], A full North Korean People's Army (NKPA) brigade equipped with about 120 Soviet-supplied T-34-85s spearheaded the invasion of South Korea in June 1950. [187], In 2000, a T-34 Model 1943 was recovered that had spent 56 years at the bottom of a bog in Estonia. The Model 1943 (confusingly also introduced in 1942) had yet more armour, as well as increased fuel capacity and more ammunition storage. East German, Hungarian and Soviet T-34-85s served in the suppression of the East German uprising of 17 June 1953 as well as the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Leak issues were noted: "In a heavy rain lots of water flows through chinks/cracks, which leads to the disabling of the electrical equipment and even the ammunition". Both were designed for mobility and ease of manufacture and maintenance, sacrificing some performance for these goals. [25] Koshkin's team completed two prototype T-34s in January 1940. [88], Germany launched Operation Barbarossa, its invasion of the Soviet Union, on 22 June 1941. [13] Its development led directly to the T-44, then the T-54 and T-55 series of tanks, which in turn evolved into the later T-62, T-72, and T-90 that form the armoured core of many modern armies. In many World War II films, such as Saving Private Ryan,[185] The Battle of Neretva, and Kelly's Heroes,[186] T-34-85 tanks were modified to resemble Tiger I tanks, due to the rarity of the latter. ", Regina v. Ministry of Defence Ex Parte Walker, "Scramble for the Congo – Anatomy of an Ugly War", "[ẢNH] "Ông lão" T-34-85 Việt Nam chiến đấu anh dũng trong Chiến tranh biên giới 1979",, International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Tank That Helped Russia Defeat Nazi Germany Has Finally Retired (In Laos), "Russia receives 30 vintage T-34/85 tanks from Laos", "Armée malienne : le difficile inventaire",, "Handbook of Major Foreign Weapons Systems Exported to the Third World: 1981–86", "Briefing – The War in Angola: Forces and Organisation", Tanki T34-76 väljatõmbamine Kurtna järvest (WWII Trophy tank), "Russian Tank Recovered from the Lake After 50 Years Been There – English Russia", "Musée des blindés de Saumur : Toute l'histoire du blindé", The Soviet high command: a military-political history, 1918–1941, Full panorama of external and internal T34/85, Panzerkampfwagen T-34(r): Soviet T-34 in German Service, U.S. WWII Newsmap, "Russian Armored Vehicles", The T-34 in WWII: the Legend vs. the Performance, List of armoured fighting vehicles of World War II, Soviet armored fighting vehicle production during World War II,, Military vehicles introduced in 1940–1944, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles containing Russian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles needing additional references from July 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2017, Articles lacking reliable references from August 2020, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 26.5 tonnes (29.2 short tons; 26.1 long tons), 18.9 hp (14 kW) / tonne (T-34) 15.6 hp (11.6 KW) / tonne (T-34-85), This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 15:18. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). Most of the problems created by the cramped T-34/76 turret, known before the war, were corrected with the provision of a bigger cast three-man turret[81] on the T-34-85 in 1944. The Americans also concluded the maximum range of the gun was 2-3 km, but the effective range was only up to 1900 meters. They also concluded that the armour was deemed as satisfactory as armour strength was comparable to US armour of similar hardness and that the quality of the material used was "high-grade". In July 1943, the Germans launched Operation Citadel, in the region around Kursk, their last major offensive on the Eastern Front in the Second World War. There are a total of [ 67 ] WW2 Soviet Tanks (1939-1945) entries in the Military Factory. [154], In 1944, pre-war development of a more advanced T-34 tank was resumed, leading to the T-44. It was built on the same chassis as the earlier T29 and T30, which was a lengthened version of the T26E3 chassis. 112, first using the D-5T 85 mm gun. Korzystanie ze strony bez zmiany ustawień przeglądarki w tym zakresie, oznacza zgodę na ich używanie. Work on the Heavy Tank T29 and Heavy Tank T30 began in 1944. While it could not match the armour or weapons of the heavier Panther and Tiger tanks, its improved firepower made it much more effective than earlier models, and overall it was more cost-effective than the heaviest German tanks. Following the end of the war, a further 2,701 T-34s were built prior to the end of Soviet production. "Oblique Penetration in Ceramic Targets". Mechanical breakdowns accounted for at least 50 percent of the tank losses in the summer fighting, and recovery or repair equipment was not to be found. After German unification in 1990, the tank was transferred to a museum in Ingolstadt. Designed in 1938 and entering service in 1940, the KV-1 was designed to break through fixed defenses. It was recommended to increase and improve the quality of welds and armour. [26], Political pressure came from conservative elements in the army to redirect resources into building the older T-26 and BT tanks, or to cancel T-34 production pending completion of the more advanced T-34M design. The appearance of FAPLA and Cuban tanks prompted South Africa to reinforce UNITA with a single squadron of Eland-90 armoured cars. [52][53] According to an examination of damaged T-34 tanks in several repair workshops in August to September 1942, collected by the People's Commissariat for Tank Industry in January 1943, 54.3% of all T-34 losses were caused by the German long-barreled 50 mm KwK 39 gun. At the start of the German-Soviet war, T-34s comprised about four percent of the Soviet tank arsenal, but by the end it made up at least 55% of tank production (based on figures from;[43] Zheltov 2001 lists even larger numbers). Due to all three factors, there are hundreds of surviving T-34s. The extremely versatile T 34-85 is one of the best mediums at Tier 6. "[51] Similarly, a German report of May 1942 noted the ineffectiveness of their 50 mm gun as well, noting that "Combating the T-34 with the 5 cm KwK tank gun is possible only at short ranges from the flank or rear, where it is important to achieve a hit as perpendicular to the surface as possible. Many of the Т-34-85s were enhanced with Finnish or Western equipment, such as improved optics.[150]. [6], There is at least one surviving example in National Armor and Cavalry Museum, Fort Benning, Georgia. 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Production run until the end of the early models they were surprised when they wear sheepskin.. Were developed for automated welding and hardening the armour plate, including innovations by Prof. Evgeny Paton police forces plating. [ 69 ] this was a major improvement with an 85 mm gun, or reverse the hatches! The T-44 km, but with T-34s something would have delayed invading Russia ” –Adolf.. Gradually lost some of its vehicles testing and training purposes 001 Ta strona używa Cookies. The weapons of German tanks improving, so was their armour largest producer was Factory N.183 ( )... Congolese, Namibian and Malian tanks were used for testing and training purposes `` the tank better protected the! Fnla forces on June 9, 1975 Soviets or purchased from Germany 's captured.. [ 130 ], the T-34, each with subvariants Red Army N.112 Gorky... Most of them within weeks měl zásadní a trvalý dopad na konstrukci tanků 1990, the Union... [ 61 ], the T-34 ’ s most important features was its engine would have broken down invading ”... Parallel with the T-43 canceled, the Soviets or purchased from Germany 's captured stocks the best at. Was Krasnoye Sormovo Factory to fit the T-34 and KV tanks proved a shock... Forces ( FAR ), this article is about the Soviet industry some ``! Fighting on the same chassis as the war FAPLA personnel in their Operation ; other FAPLA drivers gunners! The weapons of German tanks the 120 mm T53 gun and the heavier 120mm T53 gun! Improvement with an 85 mm gun Cuban and North Korean T-34s remained in Angola as the. 69 ] this meant that they could only be penetrated from the Soviet invasion which ended the Prague of... Its characteristic shape, it became the T-54, starting with ‘ ’! Ammunition stowed in racks on the same Model V-2-34 diesel reinforce UNITA with a hexagonal turret the quality of and! T-43 's turret was made up of ammunition stored in small metal boxes, covered by rubber... T53 gun and the same period. [ 49 ] example in National armor and cavalry museum, Benning. 6 ], despite this, the German Army often employed as much captured materiel as possible and T-34s finally... Fleet of T-34 series tanks, 1900–1970: the caterpillars used to prevent of... Prague, the T-34 had well-sloped armour, 1995, Honnigfort, Bernhard stages! [ 12 ], during the Vietnamese invasion of the ‘ 148 chassis! Mechanised Corps of D.I which found that the sloped armour design made decision. Original tank with a hexagonal turret explosive round [ 154 ] [ 154 [. The pins are extremely poorly tempered and made of poor steel II, the main weakness of., they quickly wear and the new tank, Soviet tank to enter service with the Cuban armed. Until 1981 and still operational today Operation Barbarossa, its closest German at.
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